# Norns: studies

wednesday!

https://monome.org/docs/norns/study-3/

28 Likes

“pause. really consider the possibilities, and i hope your mind explodes a tiny bit. this is why programming in a musical context is so incredibly powerful and interesting.”

Yep, my mind exploded just watching that demo video. First I was like “oh great a sequencer [yawn]. Then I was like “wait what is happening?!? [head explodes]

7 Likes

You know these series of studies really give me the same feeling as the Micro Adventure books of the 80s where you’d type BASIC programs into a computer as part of the story. These are great ways to learn about programming. Norns is really turning into an excellent platform for learning about creative coding and music. Thank You!

11 Likes

@tehn I love the creative possibilities in adding additional functions to the sequencer. Here is the edited list that is working for me right now.

``````function on() engine.amp(0.2) end
function inc() on() note = util.clamp(note + 5, 40, 120) end
function dec() on() note = util.clamp(note - 5, 40, 120) end
function bottom() on() note = 40 end
function top() on() note = 120 end
function rand() on() note = math.random(80) + 40 end
function metrofast() counter.time = 0.125 end
function metroslow() counter.time = 0.25 end
function positionrand() position = math.random(STEPS) end
function rest() engine.amp(0) end
function filt() res() engine.cutoff(math.random(5000)+50) end
function res() engine.gain(math.random(4.0)) end
function randsynth() width() release() end
function width() engine.pw(math.random(1.0)) end
function release() engine.release(math.random(3.0)) end

act = {inc, dec, bottom, top, rand, metrofast, metroslow, positionrand, rest, filt, randsynth}
COMMANDS = 11
label = {"+", "-", "<", ">", "*", "M", "m", "#", "r", "f", "s"}

``````
8 Likes

This is a really nice study.

Reading it, the things that leap out at me are a slight glossing over scope, which you use as a term a few times without fully clarifying. My gutfeel is to not slow down the study with endless explanation, though; I almost want footnotes, or something. (My notes on scope would be about “local scope” inside a function, and basically where variable names are relevant and not - eg how argument names are chosen, how local variables in a function are freed, etc. Also “class function” isn’t quite fully explained).

Sorry for nitpicking - just know that these tutorials are largely aimed at users whose exposure to programming, or at least programming Lua, might be limited. Mainly, it makes me appreciate how effective the narrative of the studies is - I’m only ever thinking about polish/reference/clarity.

3 Likes

are the studies planning to dive into the SC side at all (e.g. adding engines etc) ? (perhaps after matron/lua?)
(I know, lots to cover so all takes time, so might be ‘a while yet’, just wondering what is ‘in scope’)

btw… I like your examples @tehn, they are a great balance of ‘simple enough’ to understand, and extend, yet interesting enough to want to dive into - its tricky balance to achieve.

1 Like

metro class is in (norns/docs)[norns.local/docs] (must be connected to norns)

I suppose this should be norns.local/doc ?

just checked. It is /doc… but honestly, it seems like it should be /docs lol

1 Like
1 Like

Wondering if this has happened to anyone else here or if someone can point out what I may have done wrong here but last night my first day with Norns I wanted to start the first study “many tomorrows”.

I was able to get into maiden and create a new script, name it, then add the first block of code from the study. However once I ran it in Matron I got no sound and my Norns pretty much became unresponsive except for encoder 2. When I turned encoder 2 it allowed me to scroll though the page I was on but that was about it.

Now what I’m wondering is could this have happened because I went into maiden while a script was locally loaded on Norns? Forgive my lack of knowledge here as Norns will be my first foray into programming.

For about two hours I thought I had bricked or ruined Norns. After rebooting my computer I was able to have control over it again.

@prnts this sounds like a wifi bug that we’re working on. if it happens again and still isn’t responsive after a minute, shut down the norns via the emergency switch on the bottom and reboot. (use this bottom switch only if there’s a crash-- use SLEEP from the menu normally, which does a clean shutdown.

EDIT: also see @Olivier’s post below

2 Likes

This has happened to me periodically when going through the studies or creating my own scripts. When Norns becomes unresponsive while I’m working in Maiden (and without any clear error reported), simply switching to and running any other stable script directly from Maiden gets things back up and running immediately.

3 Likes

all studies now have syntax highlighting! extra readable.

13 Likes

I loved this study so much that I decided to write something similiar using processing (hope you don’t mind).
But I expanded it to use 4 tracks (for four midi channels) and added few custom operators like for example:
‘C’ - change random operator in next track
‘R’ - rotate right next track
here is recording from such session

After all this experimentation now I know that I will definetly need to start saving money for Norns

12 Likes

I combined Spacetime with @burn’s KarplusRings engine. I also made it so that button 2 resets all steps to default.

``````-- spacetime with rings
-- norns study 3
--
-- ENC 1 - change brightness
-- ENC 2 - select edit position
-- ENC 3 - choose command
-- KEY 2 - return commands to default
-- KEY 3 - randomize command set
--
-- spacetime is a weird function sequencer.
-- it plays a note on each step
-- each step is a symbol for the action.
-- + = increase note
-- - = decrease note
-- < = go to bottom note
-- > = go to top note
-- * = random note
-- M = fast metro
-- m = slow metro
-- # = jump random position
--
-- augment/change this script
-- with new functions!
-- excellent KarplusRings
-- engine

engine.name = "KarplusRings"
local cs = require 'controlspec'

note = 40
position = 1
step = {1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1}
STEPS = 16
edit = 1

function inc() note = util.clamp(note + 5, 40, 120) end
function dec() note = util.clamp(note - 5, 40, 120) end
function bottom() note = 40 end
function top() note = 120 end
function rand() note = math.random(80) + 40 end
function metrofast() counter.time = 0.125 end
function metroslow() counter.time = 0.25 end
function positionrand() position = math.random(STEPS) end

act = {inc, dec, bottom, top, rand, metrofast, metroslow, positionrand}
COMMANDS = 8
label = {"+", "-", "<", ">", "*", "M", "m", "#"}

function init()
cs.AMP = cs.new(0,1,'lin',0,0.75,'')
params:set_action("amp",
function(x) engine.amp(x) end)
engine.amp(0.75)

cs.DECAY = cs.new(0.1,15,'lin',0,3.6,'s')
params:set_action("damping",
function(x) engine.decay(x) end)

cs.COEF = cs.new(0,1,'lin',0,0.11,'')
params:set_action("brightness",
function(x) engine.coef(x) end)

cs.LPF_FREQ = cs.new(100,10000,'lin',0,3600,'')
params:set_action("lpf_freq",
function(x) engine.lpf_freq(x) end)
engine.lpf_freq(3600.0)

cs.LPF_GAIN = cs.new(0,3.2,'lin',0,0.5,'')
params:set_action("lpf_gain",
function(x) engine.lpf_gain(x) end)

cs.BPF_FREQ = cs.new(100,10000,'lin',0,1200,'')
params:set_action("bpf_freq",
function(x) engine.bpf_freq(x) end)
engine.bpf_freq(1200.0)

cs.BPF_RES = cs.new(0,4,'lin',0,0.5,'')
params:set_action("bpf_res",
function(x) engine.bpf_res(x) end)

counter = metro.alloc(count, 0.125, -1)
counter:start()
end

function count()
position = (position % STEPS) + 1
act[step[position]]()
engine.hz(midi_to_hz(note))
redraw()
end

function redraw()
screen.clear()

for i = 1,16 do
screen.level((i == edit) and 15 or 2)
screen.move(i*8-8,40)
screen.text(label[step[i]])
if i == position then
screen.move(i*8-8, 45)
screen.line_rel(6,0)
screen.stroke()
end
end

screen.update()
end

function enc(n,d)
if n == 1 then
params:delta("brightness", d)
elseif n == 2 then
edit = util.clamp(edit + d, 1, STEPS)
elseif n ==3 then
step = util.clamp(step+d, 1, COMMANDS)
end
redraw()
end

function key(n,z)
if n == 2 and z == 1 then
init_steps()
end
if n == 3 and z == 1 then
randomize_steps()
end
end

function midi_to_hz(note)
return (440/32) * (2 ^ ((note - 9) / 12))
end

function randomize_steps()
for i= 1,16 do
step[i] = math.random(COMMANDS)
end
end

function init_steps()
for i= 1,16 do
step[i] = 1
end
end``````
15 Likes

Here’s another fun Spacetime edit. I added in a gate row. Encoder 1 navigates between the command row and the gate row. One fun thing is that the gate row always runs sequentially while the command row does its own thing.

Lua is a lot of fun (aside from the 1 indexing blergh). This only took about 20 minutes to get the second row added in. When I find time, I’d like to break the metro commands out of the command row and into a dedicated clock div row. I would like to also add in the ability to change each row’s length. It would be Kria’s weird cousin.

Maybe MIDI Out once I get comfortable…

``````-- spacetime deluxe
-- with rings
-- from norns study 3
--
-- ENC 1 - change row
-- ENC 2 - select edit position
-- ENC 3 - edit current step
-- KEY 2 - return current row to default
-- KEY 3 - randomize current row
--
-- spacetime is a weird function sequencer.
-- it plays a note on each step
-- each step is a symbol for the action.
-- + = increase note
-- - = decrease note
-- < = go to bottom note
-- > = go to top note
-- * = random note
-- M = fast metro
-- m = slow metro
-- # = jump random position
--
-- top row: functions
-- bottom row: gates

-- augment/change this script
-- with new functions!
-- excellent KarplusRings
-- engine

engine.name = "KarplusRings"
local cs = require 'controlspec'

numRows = 2
activeRow = 1

note = 40
position = 1
step = {1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1, 1,1,1,1}
STEPS = 16
edit = 1

gatePosition = 1
gate = {2,1,2,2, 2,1,2,1, 2,2,1,2, 2,1,2,1}
gateLabel = {"_", "X"}

function inc() note = util.clamp(note + 5, 40, 120) end
function dec() note = util.clamp(note - 5, 40, 120) end
function bottom() note = 40 end
function top() note = 120 end
function rand() note = math.random(80) + 40 end
function metrofast() counter.time = 0.125 end
function metroslow() counter.time = 0.25 end
function positionrand() position = math.random(STEPS) end

act = {inc, dec, bottom, top, rand, metrofast, metroslow, positionrand}
COMMANDS = 8
label = {"+", "-", "<", ">", "*", "M", "m", "#"}

function init()
cs.AMP = cs.new(0,1,'lin',0,0.75,'')
params:set_action("amp",
function(x) engine.amp(x) end)
engine.amp(0.75)

cs.DECAY = cs.new(0.1,15,'lin',0,3.6,'s')
params:set_action("damping",
function(x) engine.decay(x) end)

cs.COEF = cs.new(0,1,'lin',0,0.11,'')
params:set_action("brightness",
function(x) engine.coef(x) end)

cs.LPF_FREQ = cs.new(100,10000,'lin',0,3600,'')
params:set_action("lpf_freq",
function(x) engine.lpf_freq(x) end)
engine.lpf_freq(3600.0)

cs.LPF_GAIN = cs.new(0,3.2,'lin',0,0.5,'')
params:set_action("lpf_gain",
function(x) engine.lpf_gain(x) end)

cs.BPF_FREQ = cs.new(100,10000,'lin',0,1200,'')
params:set_action("bpf_freq",
function(x) engine.bpf_freq(x) end)
engine.bpf_freq(1200.0)

cs.BPF_RES = cs.new(0,4,'lin',0,0.5,'')
params:set_action("bpf_res",
function(x) engine.bpf_res(x) end)

counter = metro.alloc(count, 0.125, -1)
counter:start()
end

function count()
position = (position % STEPS) + 1
gatePosition = (gatePosition % STEPS) + 1

act[step[position]]()

if gate[gatePosition] == 2 then
engine.hz(midi_to_hz(note))
end

redraw()
end

function redraw()
screen.clear()

for i = 1,16 do
screen.level((i == edit and activeRow == 1) and 15 or 2)
screen.move(i*8-8,10)
screen.text(label[step[i]])

screen.level((i == edit and activeRow == 2) and 15 or 2)
screen.move(i*8-8, 30)
screen.text(gateLabel[gate[i]])

if i == position then
screen.move(i*8-8, 15)
screen.line_rel(6,0)
screen.stroke()
end

if i == gatePosition then
screen.move(i*8-8, 35)
screen.line_rel(6,0)
screen.stroke()
end
end

screen.update()
end

function enc(n,d)
if n == 1 then
activeRow = util.clamp(activeRow + d, 1, numRows)
elseif n == 2 then
edit = util.clamp(edit + d, 1, STEPS)
elseif n ==3 then
if activeRow == 1 then
step = util.clamp(step+d, 1, COMMANDS)
elseif activeRow == 2 then
gate = util.clamp(gate+d, 1, 2)
end
end
redraw()
end

function key(n,z)
if n == 2 and z == 1 then
init_steps()
end
if n == 3 and z == 1 then
randomize_steps()
end
end

function midi_to_hz(note)
return (440/32) * (2 ^ ((note - 9) / 12))
end

function randomize_steps()
for i= 1,16 do
if activeRow == 1 then step[i] = math.random(COMMANDS) end
if activeRow == 2 then gate[i] = math.random(2) end
end
end

function init_steps()
for i= 1,16 do
if activeRow == 1 then step[i] = 1 end
if activeRow == 2 then gate[i] = 1 end
end
end``````
13 Likes

THIS WEEK the study is getting pushed to next week, so i can work on some code and get a norns update out to you all. (and finish building/shipping second batch).

thanks for your patience, you’ll like the update!

25 Likes

I just added a dust pull request so that pre-written studies will be included for people who don’t want to program.

There are some other goodies in the pull request, including a super-deluxe version of spacetime

Will there be a new study today?

8 Likes

the last two weeks have been focused on refining code— we decided the device management (grid/midi/etc) needed some care (substantial change) before i introduce a study. the new method is much more dynamic. thanks for your patience!

still on track for a friday update.

16 Likes

Could someone explain that line of Spacetime script:

`act[step[position]]()`

??